Base oil is identified as hydrocarbons with 18 to 40 carbon atoms that have a boiling point between 550 and 1050 degrees Fahrenheit. The term "base oil" refers to lubrication-grade oils that are made by processing crude oil (mineral base oil) or chemical synthesis (synthetic base oil). Based on the chemical composition of the molecules, this oil may also be paraffinic or napthenic in nature. Base oils are classified into five groups by the American Petroleum Institute (API). Petroleum crude oil is refined into the first 3 groups. Group IV base oils are polyalphaolefin (polyalphaolefin) oils that are fully synthetic. All other base oils not included in Groups I through IV reside in Group V.
Base oils are used to produce lubricating greases, motor oil, and metal processing fluids, among other things. Varied products necessitate different oil compositions and qualities. The viscosity of the liquid at different temperatures is one of the most essential aspects.